Cardiometabolic Health

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Cardiometabolic health (and cardiorespiratory fitness) is one of the most accurate measures of individual risk of obesity, insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, high blood pressure and heart attacks or strokes

Dr Ran Crooke

Optimal cardiometabolic health requires multiple bodily systems, such as the lungs, heart, muscles and energy systems to be functioning in synchrony. Cardiorespiratory fitness is the best measure of cardiometabolic health and widely considered to be one of the best reflections of whole body health and function [1]. It is also one of the strongest predictors of the risk of death, as well as certain chronic diseases and cancers [2].


Cardiorespiratory fitness is best measured through cardiorespiratory exercise testing (CPET, also known as CPEX, VO2max, VO2peak). The CPET test, therefore, forms a core part of our health assessments given the rich and informative data that is derived from testing. This is no longer a test reserved for Olympians but for anyone looking to optimise their healthspan (quality of life) and longevity (delaying the onset of chronic diseases).

What does a CPET test tell you?

The CPET test is best known for the VO2peak measurement. This is the figure also used to assess an overall state of health and functioning. The data collected during the test can also give insights into lung health, hyperventilation (breathing too fast which can have a knock-on effect on how well your brain is functioning), what proportion of fat and carbohydrates are being used at different intensities of exercise and, for those entering a fitness training programme, accurate training zones to get the most efficiency and effectiveness from training to optimise performance.

What is cardiometabolic disease?

"Cardiometabolic disease" describes a spectrum of chronic diseases that are some of the leading causes of death globally. These include diabetes, high blood pressure, heart attacks and strokes. Cardiovascular disease (eg heart attacks and strokes) account for 31% deaths worldwide [3]. 

These conditions have a significant latent periods when no symptoms are present. Over 35% of the population has "pre-"diabetes, a high-risk state for developing type 2 diabetes [4]. Typically, the abnormal metabolism that ultimately leads to these conditions can take up to 25 years before these diseases are diagnosed [5], giving plenty of opportunity to have an impact on what are largely preventable conditions [3]. 

Through advanced blood panels, emerging continuous blood glucose analysis [6], CPET testing, in addition to risk profile generated from the initial consultation, our programmes will assess your individual risk and develop a plan to help keep risks of cardiometabolic disease to a minimum.


[1]       R. Ross et al., “Importance of Assessing Cardiorespiratory Fitness in Clinical Practice: A Case for Fitness as a Clinical Vital Sign: A Scientific Statement from the American Heart Association,” Circulation, vol. 134, no. 24, pp. e653–e699, Dec. 2016, doi: 10.1161/CIR.0000000000000461.

[2]      M. T. Imboden, M. P. Harber, M. H. Whaley, W. H. Finch, D. L. Bishop, and L. A. Kaminsky, “Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Mortality in Healthy Men and Women,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol., vol. 72, no. 19, pp. 2283–2292, Nov. 2018, doi: 10.1016/J.JACC.2018.08.2166.

[3]      “Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs).” [Online]. Available: [Accessed: 08-Oct-2020].

[4]      A. G. Mainous, R. J. Tanner, R. Baker, C. E. Zayas, and C. A. Harle, “Prevalence of prediabetes in England from 2003 to 2011: Population-based, cross-sectional study,” BMJ Open, vol. 4, no. 6, p. e005002, May 2014, doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2014-005002.

[5]      “Diabetes.” [Online]. Available: [Accessed: 08-Oct-2020].

[6]      D. Zeevi et al., “Personalized Nutrition by Prediction of Glycemic Responses,” Cell, vol. 163, no. 5, pp. 1079–1094, Nov. 2015, doi: 10.1016/j.cell.2015.11.001.